Before doing this week’s reading, I could only see the similarities among diverse ISD models. And I felt that a lot of them merely seemed to be another version of ADDIE model because they all contained Analysis, Design, Development and Evaluation sections. As for the differences, I knew those models varied in some dimensions such as the contexts and formats, but it was hard to clarify them and establish schemata to categorize them. Now I learn that you can analyze a particular model in terms of orientation, knowledge structure, expertise, structure, context and level. It helps you to learn more about the model itself and in what situation it fits in. Models designed for educational purposes tend to teach “declarative knowledge” more while models for training purposes are more suitable for “procedural knowledge”. Also, compared to hard systems in which everything is well defined, soft systems are more complex and might not be a good option for novices instructional designers. Sometimes your decision is based on your previous experience, which I would rather call “implicit knowledge”. I don’t believe there are any “unteachable things”. The only problem is externalization and of course, it is hard.
Another issue mentioned in guest lecture is transfer paradox. He said the reason why some PhD students chose to stay in academia was that they had problems in transferring what they learnt at school to real world problems at work. Honestly, I doubted it. I tried to search it online and could not find any supporting materials. However I accidentally found an article about several transfer paradoxes learners confront and some suggestions to solve them.
A list of paradoxes discussed in that article are:
Paradox of finding prior knowledge;
Paradox of tacit knowledge;
Paradox of using relevant prior knowledge;
Paradox of recognizing relevant situations and conditions;
Paradox of near and far transfer;
The paradoxical “what “to transfer.
I think though the list might not be comprehensive but it provides a way to think of possible reasons when learning transfer fails to occur.
Simons, P. R. J. (1999). Transfer of learning: Paradoxes for learners.International Journal of Educational Research, 31(7), 577-589.